A briefing on NTPsec
Eric S. Raymond
esr at thyrsus.com
Fri May 13 11:31:28 UTC 2016
Jay Ashworth informs me that NTP security and risks has recently been
a hot topic on NANOG, and that NTPsec was mentioned. Therefore I've
written a bit of a background briefing on the project, which follows.
The NTPsec project was initially funded in late 2014 by NSF when
authorities there became concerned about frequent incidents of DDoS
amplification involving ntpd. I was hired in as tech lead early on (in
part because of my work on GPSD, a technically similar project) and
retained that position when the Linux Foundation picked up funding
the project. It's now managed by Mark Atwood, who some of you may know
from HPE and OpenStack.
I'm going to pass over the politics around the fork from what our team
now calls "NTP Classic" because it wasn't my decision or desire, merely
observing that I reluctantly acknowledged the necessity and wish
things could have been otherwise.
The goal of NTPsec is to achieve high security and high assurance
through systematic application of modern best practices. Though not
yet at release 1.0, our progress can be judged by the fact that when
the last batch of 11 CVEs against NTP was released, we were not
vulnerable to 8 of them because we had previously removed or successfully
hardened the code they exploited.
This was no fluke. Over the last 11 months, we have compiled a
significantly - I think it's fair to say "dramatically" - better
security record than Classic. We've earned some trust in the infosec
research community, working effectively with (among others) Sharon
Goldberg's group at BU. We were the first to develop a verified fix
for the now infamous off-path KOD bug (CVE-2015-7979).
You can read more about our code-hardening practices here:
In brief, we've thrown out a lot of cruft and archaisms. The code has
been lifted to C99/POSIX-2001 conformance; other than a few warts near
Mac OS X and some unused Windows code probably destined for removal
itself, the port shims that used to infest the codebase are nearly
gone. Mode 7 has been removed, as has Autokey; these were nests of
bugs too risky to leave in.
We've also done a lot of code auditing using tools like Coverity and
cppcheck, and worked hard on improving our test coverage (that part has
been more difficult than any of the code changes, actually, and is
still very much a work in progress).
Here's a figure that should tell you a lot: we removed 57% of the
original codebase in the process of cleaning it up. No, that's not
a typo; the NTPsec codebase is *less than half* the size of NTP
Classic. And much, much easier to read. That's even without
counting the huge simplification win from ditching autotools.
Nevertheless, sysdamins will find it very familiar. The largest
speedbump you will encounter in normal operation is that we've
changed the names of some auxiliary tools so everything has an "ntp"
prefix. The only thing I expect to actually surprise you is the
documentation, which has been greatly improved, specifically by
removing duplications and inconsistencies and distracting references
to equipment that has been dead since the Late Cretaceous.
So far this is a deliberately conservative fork. We haven't yet tried
to add protocol features for security because there is plenty of
useful work to be done before tackling that very hard problem. We're
actively cooperating with the IETF NTP WG (we've committed to
supplying second interop for some upcoming draft RFCs) and we're
watching the work on NTS closely. It is likely, though not yet
certain, that we'll be second interop on that.
Finally, I note some criticism that NTPsec is short on people who
understand all the subtleties of time service in the field. This is
partly justified. The tech lead admits to being something of a newbie;
though I know a lot about some adjacent technical areas from ten years
of leading GPSD, I was not a time-service expert before being engaged
for this project and am still coming up to speed.
The team does already include one time-service old hand and a really
good crypto/infosec specialist. NANOG listmember Gary E. Miller was
an early team member who remains a friend of the project. We would
certainly welcome more engagement and advice fom time-service experts,
and the sort of experienced sysadmins who frequent NANOG.
In a future post I may have a bit to say about Stratum 1s based on the
RPi and other hackerboards. I've been working in that area as well.
I'll be happy to answer technical and procedural questions about NTPsec.
Any questions about politics and policy should go to Mark Atwood.
See www.ntpsec.org for more information.
<a href="http://www.catb.org/~esr/">Eric S. Raymond</a>
More information about the NANOG