The Making of a Router

Ray Soucy rps at maine.edu
Sun Dec 29 14:11:38 UTC 2013


> for i in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/arp_announce; do echo 2 > $i;done

+1 setting arp_announce in Linux is essential if being used as a router
with more than one subnet.

I would also recommend setting arp_ignore.  For Linux-based routers, I've
found the following settings to be optimal:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_announce
echo 2 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_ignore

On a side note, this underscores what a lot of people on-list are saying:

If you don't understand the internals of a Linux system, for example,
"rolling your own" will bite you.

It's also pretty rare to find a network engineer who is also a Linux
system-level developer, so finding and maintaining that talent can often be
a challenge.

Many make a leap and go on to assert that because of this software-based
systems can never be viable, which I disagree with.  After all, the latest
OS offerings from Cisco run a Linux kernel.  Nearly all the Ciena DWDM and
ME gear I run is built on Linux.  These companies aren't doing quite as
much with hardware acceleration as they would lead you to believe.

I think Intel DPDK will be a disruptive technology for networking.

At the end of the day, I'm pretty anxious to see the days of over-priced
routers driving up network service costs go away.




On Sun, Dec 29, 2013 at 4:10 AM, Laurent GUERBY <laurent at guerby.net> wrote:
>
> On Sun, 2013-12-29 at 03:31 +0100, Baldur Norddahl wrote:
> > (...)
> > The users each have a unique VLAN (Q-in-Q). The question is, what do I
put
> > on those VLANs, if I do not want to put a full IPv4 subnet on each?
> >
> > My own answer to that is to have the users share a larger subnet, for
> > example I could have a full class C sized subnet shared between 253
> > users/VLANs.
> >
> > To allow these users to communicate with each other, and so they can
> > communicate with the default gateway IP, I will need proxy arp. And in a
> > non-OpenFlow solution, also the associated security functions such as
> > DHCP-snooping to prevent hijacking of IP addresses.
> >
> > Which devices can solve this task?
>
> Hi Baldur,
>
> Assuming you manage 1.1.1.0/24 and 2001:db8:0::/48 and
> have a Linux box on both ends you can get rid of
> IPv4 and v6 interco subnets and arp proxy the following way:
>
> 1/ on the gateway
> ip addr add 1.1.1.0/32 dev lo
>
> for all client VLAN "NN" on eth0 :
> ip -6 addr add fe80::1/64 dev eth0.NN
> ip -6 route add 2001:db8:0:NN00::/56 via fe80::1:NN dev eth0.NN
>
> 2/ on user CPE number "NN" CPE WAN interface being eth0 :
> ip addr add 1.1.1.NN/32 dev eth0
> ip route add 1.1.1.0/32 dev eth0
> ip route add default via 1.1.1.0
> ip -6 addr add fe80::1:NN/64 dev eth0
> ip -6 route add default via fe80::1 dev eth0
> # ip -6 addr add  2001:db8:0:NN00::1/56 dev eth0 # optional
>
> Note: NN in hex for IPv6
>
> The trick in IPv4 is that linux by default will answer to ARP requests
> for "1.1.1.0" on all interfaces even if the adress is on the loopback.
> And in IPv6 use static link local on both ends. You can replace
> "1.1.1.0" by any IPv4, but since ".0" are rarely assigned to end users
> it doesn't waste anything and keep traceroute with public IPv4.
>
> The nice thing of this setup is that it "virtualizes" the routing from
> the client point of view: you can split/balance your clients on multiple
> physical gateways and not change a line to the client configuration
> while it's being moved, you just have to configure your IGP between
> gateways to properly distribute internal routes.
>
> We (AS197422 / tetaneutral.net) use this for virtual machines too (with
> "tapNN" interfaces from KVM instead of "eth0.NN"): it allows us to move
> virtual machines around physical machines without user reconfiguration,
> not waste any IPv4 and avoid all issues with shared L2 (rogue RA/ARP
> spoofing/whatever) since there's no shared L2 anymore between user VM.
> It also allows us to not pre split our IPv4 space in a fixed scheme,
> we manage only /32 so no waste at all.
>
> Of course you still have work to do on PPS tuning.
>
> Sincerely,
>
> Laurent GUERBY
> AS197422 http://tetaneutral.net peering http://as197422.net
>
> PS: minimum settings on a Linux router
> echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
> for i in /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/*; do for j in autoconf accept_ra; do
echo 0 > $i/$j; done;done
> echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding
> echo 65536 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/route/max_size
> for i in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/arp_announce; do echo 2 > $i;done
>
> PPS: we also like to give /56 to our users in IPv6, it makes a nice /24
> IPv4 <=> /48 IPv6 correspondance (256 users).
>
>
>



--
Ray Patrick Soucy
Network Engineer
University of Maine System

T: 207-561-3526
F: 207-561-3531

MaineREN, Maine's Research and Education Network
www.maineren.net


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