NANOG Digest, Vol 23, Issue 82

Rodriguez, Mauricio Mauricio.Rodriguez at fpl.com
Tue Dec 22 07:50:56 CST 2009


Any time mobile.


Regards,
Mauricio Rodriguez
Manager of IP/Data Engineering, FPL FiberNet
Email: Mauricio.Rodriguez at fpl.com
Office: 305-552-3418
Mobile: 786-236-2665
Pager: 786-236-2665

Sent using BlackBerry

----- Original Message -----
From: nanog-request at nanog.org <nanog-request at nanog.org>
To: nanog at nanog.org <nanog at nanog.org>
Sent: Tue Dec 22 08:33:01 2009
Subject: NANOG Digest, Vol 23, Issue 82

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Today's Topics:

   1. Re: how it routes and network question (Deric Kwok)
   2. Re: how it routes and network question (Truman Boyes)
   3. RE: how it routes and network question (Bruce Forster)
   4. RE: how it routes and network question (Bruce Forster)
   5. Re: Article on spammers and their infrastructure (Tony Finch)
   6. Re: how it routes and network question (Kieran Murphy)


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 2009 07:31:58 -0500
From: Deric Kwok <deric.kwok2000 at gmail.com>
Subject: Re: how it routes and network question
To: Bruce Forster <bruce at tubes.net.au>
Cc: nanog at nanog.org
Message-ID:
        <40d8a95a0912220431p7232025bx338affded04c8bd0 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

Hi Bruce

Thank you so much to explain me in detail. I would like to know about
this it in case i can get another  hosting company

Yes. I think the netmask should be 255.255.255.255
1/ but why they are using this netmask setting? save ip address?
then does the router handle many routes in this setting?
2/ What is this advantage for the hosting company?
3/ If I need more ip in the same server, how it works?
4/ Why you said the hosting company is cheap to use this configuration?

Thank you again.





>
> <SNIP>
> 2/ lf ?the network card in server has problem and need change another
> one, will my ip address change to another ip address also?
> </SNIP>
> Yeah well thats how dhcp works, via ma caddy, i guess you can always spoof
> your old mac address.
>
> <SNIP>
> 3/ why hosting company is using /32 and dhcp? what is advantage? ls it
> easy for administration?
> </SNIP>
> Im guessing because the users are to stupid to understand what a subnet
> mask/gateway is its just easier to get the mac address and assign it to a
> user then let the user assign a ip.
>
>
> Normally in a co-location setup its not like this, inless its very cheap
> hosting.
>
> My co-location has the following setup, and this is how MOST networks should
> be run.
>
> Core router using BGP to transit providers, and other local peers.
> Switched network useing ospf to handle the routes and also VLAN's for the
> customers subnets.
>
> So customer should get a vlan assigned to them (which they have no need to
> know what the number is, they are handed a access mode port.
> Customers also issued a /30 (at least) in most cases a customer will get a
> /29 or /28 depending on what they need.
> In this case of a /30 its a total of 3 address's
> 1, GATEWAY (put on the ISP/HOST switch
> 2, IP ADDRESS FOR SERVER TO USE
> 3, BROADCAST ADDRESS.
>
> Heres an eg of a /30:
>
> Address: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
> Netmask: ? 255.255.255.252 = 30 11111111.11111111.11111111.111111 00
> Wildcard: ?0.0.0.3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?00000000.00000000.00000000.000000 11
> =>
> Network: ? 192.168.1.0/30 ? ? ? 11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 00
> HostMin: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
> HostMax: ? 192.168.1.2 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 10
> Broadcast: 192.168.1.3 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 11
> Hosts/Net: 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Class C, Private Internet
>
>
> Heres an eg of a /29:
>
> the % ipcalc 192.168.1.1/29
> Address: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
> Netmask: ? 255.255.255.248 = 29 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111 000
> Wildcard: ?0.0.0.7 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?00000000.00000000.00000000.00000 111
> =>
> Network: ? 192.168.1.0/29 ? ? ? 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 000
> HostMin: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
> HostMax: ? 192.168.1.6 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 110
> Broadcast: 192.168.1.7 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 111
> Hosts/Net: 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Class C, Private Internet
>
> Hope this makes sence.
>
> Regards,
>
> Bruce
>
>
>



------------------------------

Message: 2
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 2009 23:47:11 +1100
From: Truman Boyes <truman at suspicious.org>
Subject: Re: how it routes and network question
To: Deric Kwok <deric.kwok2000 at gmail.com>
Cc: nanog at nanog.org
Message-ID: <AEFCAD09-B29B-4349-A57C-E6AC3E860DAF at suspicious.org>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

Hi, your "hosting company" is likely NAT'ing or using load balancers on the front end. You are obviously not "reaching" those machines by ssh'ing into 192.168.x.x... Additionally, assuming that DHCP is handing out that address on the server that mask would likely not be all ones.

Even Amazon EC2 instances use private addresses now on the backend ...

Kind regards,
Truman


On 22/12/2009, at 11:31 PM, Deric Kwok wrote:

> Hi Bruce
>
> Thank you so much to explain me in detail. I would like to know about
> this it in case i can get another  hosting company
>
> Yes. I think the netmask should be 255.255.255.255
> 1/ but why they are using this netmask setting? save ip address?
> then does the router handle many routes in this setting?
> 2/ What is this advantage for the hosting company?
> 3/ If I need more ip in the same server, how it works?
> 4/ Why you said the hosting company is cheap to use this configuration?
>
> Thank you again.
>
>
>
>
>
>>
>> <SNIP>
>> 2/ lf  the network card in server has problem and need change another
>> one, will my ip address change to another ip address also?
>> </SNIP>
>> Yeah well thats how dhcp works, via ma caddy, i guess you can always spoof
>> your old mac address.
>>
>> <SNIP>
>> 3/ why hosting company is using /32 and dhcp? what is advantage? ls it
>> easy for administration?
>> </SNIP>
>> Im guessing because the users are to stupid to understand what a subnet
>> mask/gateway is its just easier to get the mac address and assign it to a
>> user then let the user assign a ip.
>>
>>
>> Normally in a co-location setup its not like this, inless its very cheap
>> hosting.
>>
>> My co-location has the following setup, and this is how MOST networks should
>> be run.
>>
>> Core router using BGP to transit providers, and other local peers.
>> Switched network useing ospf to handle the routes and also VLAN's for the
>> customers subnets.
>>
>> So customer should get a vlan assigned to them (which they have no need to
>> know what the number is, they are handed a access mode port.
>> Customers also issued a /30 (at least) in most cases a customer will get a
>> /29 or /28 depending on what they need.
>> In this case of a /30 its a total of 3 address's
>> 1, GATEWAY (put on the ISP/HOST switch
>> 2, IP ADDRESS FOR SERVER TO USE
>> 3, BROADCAST ADDRESS.
>>
>> Heres an eg of a /30:
>>
>> Address:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
>> Netmask:   255.255.255.252 = 30 11111111.11111111.11111111.111111 00
>> Wildcard:  0.0.0.3              00000000.00000000.00000000.000000 11
>> =>
>> Network:   192.168.1.0/30       11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 00
>> HostMin:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
>> HostMax:   192.168.1.2          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 10
>> Broadcast: 192.168.1.3          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 11
>> Hosts/Net: 2                     Class C, Private Internet
>>
>>
>> Heres an eg of a /29:
>>
>> the % ipcalc 192.168.1.1/29
>> Address:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
>> Netmask:   255.255.255.248 = 29 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111 000
>> Wildcard:  0.0.0.7              00000000.00000000.00000000.00000 111
>> =>
>> Network:   192.168.1.0/29       11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 000
>> HostMin:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
>> HostMax:   192.168.1.6          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 110
>> Broadcast: 192.168.1.7          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 111
>> Hosts/Net: 6                     Class C, Private Internet
>>
>> Hope this makes sence.
>>
>> Regards,
>>
>> Bruce
>>
>>
>>
>




------------------------------

Message: 3
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 2009 22:48:04 +1000
From: "Bruce Forster" <bruce at tubes.net.au>
Subject: RE: how it routes and network question
To: "'Deric Kwok'" <deric.kwok2000 at gmail.com>
Cc: nanog at nanog.org
Message-ID: <[email protected]>
Content-Type: text/plain;       charset="iso-8859-1"

<SNIP>
Yes. I think the netmask should be 255.255.255.255
1/ but why they are using this netmask setting? save ip address?
then does the router handle many routes in this setting?
</SNIP>

I have no idea the only way you can have a /32 is with a ppp that doesn?t
use arps to talk to each end of the tunnel.
I would assume they have /24's and are giving out /32 via dhcp to customers
and the customers should see 255.255.255.0 with a gateway of eg, .1 etc..

<SNIP>
2/ What is this advantage for the hosting company?
</SNIP>

If the company is setup the way i think it is the only reason for this is:
1, they have no clue what they are doing
2, they offer a very cheap hosting service and have no managed switches, and
don?t understand how to subnet and use vlan's.

<SNIP>
3/ If I need more ip in the same server, how it works?
</SNIP>

I would of thought if you have 2 x servers you wanted to co-locate the
hosting company would offer you a /29 with 1 gateway 1 broadcast and 4
useable on a vlan, so local traffic only sits on the vlan and the servers
can talk to each other via the local vlan.

I guess if the machines have more then 1 nic you can connect the 2 machines
via a local 'backnet' network it can be useful if you have a cross-over
cable between the 2 x machines and its a 1GB port. This also saves using the
switches, in some cases hosting companies may count all traffic that goes
over the interface (if they don?t use net flow) and you could end up paying
for traffic which you really shouldn?t have to pay for.

If you are using the additional ports for high amounts of data eg, backup's
images etc, you can really tweak tcp settings so you can send JUMBO frames
and squeeze some speed out of it.

<SNIP>
4/ Why you said the hosting company is cheap to use this configuration?
</SNIP>

Yes its alot cheaper to have say a common-gateway that all traffic will
route over and then connect a bunch of switches to this common router and
manage it via dhcp, its very messy and also very noisy i can only imagine
after you connect a few servers that over time you will see arp storms and
all traffic on the network will cease to flow.

As mentioned in my other posts how it should be done, clearly you need to
buy layer 3 switches and layer 2 switches and a nice core router to deal
with your bgp, you also need to make sure your using devices that can handle
high packets per second.

As i am writing this i feel as if im doing someone homework for them... ;P


Thank you again.





>
> <SNIP>
> 2/ lf ?the network card in server has problem and need change another
> one, will my ip address change to another ip address also?
> </SNIP>
> Yeah well thats how dhcp works, via ma caddy, i guess you can always spoof
> your old mac address.
>
> <SNIP>
> 3/ why hosting company is using /32 and dhcp? what is advantage? ls it
> easy for administration?
> </SNIP>
> Im guessing because the users are to stupid to understand what a subnet
> mask/gateway is its just easier to get the mac address and assign it to a
> user then let the user assign a ip.
>
>
> Normally in a co-location setup its not like this, inless its very cheap
> hosting.
>
> My co-location has the following setup, and this is how MOST networks
should
> be run.
>
> Core router using BGP to transit providers, and other local peers.
> Switched network useing ospf to handle the routes and also VLAN's for the
> customers subnets.
>
> So customer should get a vlan assigned to them (which they have no need to
> know what the number is, they are handed a access mode port.
> Customers also issued a /30 (at least) in most cases a customer will get a
> /29 or /28 depending on what they need.
> In this case of a /30 its a total of 3 address's
> 1, GATEWAY (put on the ISP/HOST switch
> 2, IP ADDRESS FOR SERVER TO USE
> 3, BROADCAST ADDRESS.
>
> Heres an eg of a /30:
>
> Address: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
> Netmask: ? 255.255.255.252 = 30 11111111.11111111.11111111.111111 00
> Wildcard: ?0.0.0.3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?00000000.00000000.00000000.000000 11
> =>
> Network: ? 192.168.1.0/30 ? ? ? 11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 00
> HostMin: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
> HostMax: ? 192.168.1.2 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 10
> Broadcast: 192.168.1.3 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 11
> Hosts/Net: 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Class C, Private Internet
>
>
> Heres an eg of a /29:
>
> the % ipcalc 192.168.1.1/29
> Address: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
> Netmask: ? 255.255.255.248 = 29 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111 000
> Wildcard: ?0.0.0.7 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?00000000.00000000.00000000.00000 111
> =>
> Network: ? 192.168.1.0/29 ? ? ? 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 000
> HostMin: ? 192.168.1.1 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
> HostMax: ? 192.168.1.6 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 110
> Broadcast: 192.168.1.7 ? ? ? ? ?11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 111
> Hosts/Net: 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Class C, Private Internet
>
> Hope this makes sence.
>
> Regards,
>
> Bruce
>
>
>




------------------------------

Message: 4
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 2009 22:51:20 +1000
From: "Bruce Forster" <bruce at tubes.net.au>
Subject: RE: how it routes and network question
To: "'Truman Boyes'" <truman at suspicious.org>,   "'Deric Kwok'"
        <deric.kwok2000 at gmail.com>
Cc: nanog at nanog.org
Message-ID: <[email protected]>
Content-Type: text/plain;       charset="us-ascii"

I should add; i guess i made some assumption that you were co-locating your
own servers with someone, if this isn't the case, please ignore everything
i'v said ;)


-bruce

-----Original Message-----
From: Truman Boyes [mailto:truman at suspicious.org]
Sent: Tuesday, 22 December 2009 10:47 PM
To: Deric Kwok
Cc: Bruce Forster; nanog at nanog.org
Subject: Re: how it routes and network question

Hi, your "hosting company" is likely NAT'ing or using load balancers on the
front end. You are obviously not "reaching" those machines by ssh'ing into
192.168.x.x... Additionally, assuming that DHCP is handing out that address
on the server that mask would likely not be all ones.

Even Amazon EC2 instances use private addresses now on the backend ...

Kind regards,
Truman


On 22/12/2009, at 11:31 PM, Deric Kwok wrote:

> Hi Bruce
>
> Thank you so much to explain me in detail. I would like to know about
> this it in case i can get another  hosting company
>
> Yes. I think the netmask should be 255.255.255.255
> 1/ but why they are using this netmask setting? save ip address?
> then does the router handle many routes in this setting?
> 2/ What is this advantage for the hosting company?
> 3/ If I need more ip in the same server, how it works?
> 4/ Why you said the hosting company is cheap to use this configuration?
>
> Thank you again.
>
>
>
>
>
>>
>> <SNIP>
>> 2/ lf  the network card in server has problem and need change another
>> one, will my ip address change to another ip address also?
>> </SNIP>
>> Yeah well thats how dhcp works, via ma caddy, i guess you can always
spoof
>> your old mac address.
>>
>> <SNIP>
>> 3/ why hosting company is using /32 and dhcp? what is advantage? ls it
>> easy for administration?
>> </SNIP>
>> Im guessing because the users are to stupid to understand what a subnet
>> mask/gateway is its just easier to get the mac address and assign it to a
>> user then let the user assign a ip.
>>
>>
>> Normally in a co-location setup its not like this, inless its very cheap
>> hosting.
>>
>> My co-location has the following setup, and this is how MOST networks
should
>> be run.
>>
>> Core router using BGP to transit providers, and other local peers.
>> Switched network useing ospf to handle the routes and also VLAN's for the
>> customers subnets.
>>
>> So customer should get a vlan assigned to them (which they have no need
to
>> know what the number is, they are handed a access mode port.
>> Customers also issued a /30 (at least) in most cases a customer will get
a
>> /29 or /28 depending on what they need.
>> In this case of a /30 its a total of 3 address's
>> 1, GATEWAY (put on the ISP/HOST switch
>> 2, IP ADDRESS FOR SERVER TO USE
>> 3, BROADCAST ADDRESS.
>>
>> Heres an eg of a /30:
>>
>> Address:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
>> Netmask:   255.255.255.252 = 30 11111111.11111111.11111111.111111 00
>> Wildcard:  0.0.0.3              00000000.00000000.00000000.000000 11
>> =>
>> Network:   192.168.1.0/30       11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 00
>> HostMin:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
>> HostMax:   192.168.1.2          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 10
>> Broadcast: 192.168.1.3          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 11
>> Hosts/Net: 2                     Class C, Private Internet
>>
>>
>> Heres an eg of a /29:
>>
>> the % ipcalc 192.168.1.1/29
>> Address:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
>> Netmask:   255.255.255.248 = 29 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111 000
>> Wildcard:  0.0.0.7              00000000.00000000.00000000.00000 111
>> =>
>> Network:   192.168.1.0/29       11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 000
>> HostMin:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
>> HostMax:   192.168.1.6          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 110
>> Broadcast: 192.168.1.7          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 111
>> Hosts/Net: 6                     Class C, Private Internet
>>
>> Hope this makes sence.
>>
>> Regards,
>>
>> Bruce
>>
>>
>>
>





------------------------------

Message: 5
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 2009 13:08:18 +0000
From: Tony Finch <dot at dotat.at>
Subject: Re: Article on spammers and their infrastructure
To: Phil Regnauld <regnauld at nsrc.org>
Cc: nanog at nanog.org
Message-ID:
        <alpine.LSU.2.00.0912221308040.3461 at hermes-1.csi.cam.ac.uk>
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

On Tue, 22 Dec 2009, Phil Regnauld wrote:

> http://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/attackers-buying-own-data-centers-botnets-spam-122109
>
> It this something new ?  The article seems to mix various issues together.
> And this would seem highly inefficient to me compared to traditional
> botnets (renting your own rack for a botnet doesn't really make sense :)
>
> Comments ?

Sounds like a snowshoe setup to me.

Tony.
--
f.anthony.n.finch  <dot at dotat.at>  http://dotat.at/
GERMAN BIGHT HUMBER: SOUTHWEST 5 TO 7. MODERATE OR ROUGH. SQUALLY SHOWERS.
MODERATE OR GOOD.



------------------------------

Message: 6
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 2009 13:32:58 +0000
From: Kieran Murphy <daffy at daffy.za.net>
Subject: Re: how it routes and network question
To: Bruce Forster <bruce at tubes.net.au>
Cc: nanog at nanog.org
Message-ID:
        <ae774e0c0912220532g4d0928e4r4f4cfc6606324b75 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

Or these are VPS', and not physical Servers.
>From my brief encounters with various VPS technologies, this makes more
sense.

Regards,
Kieran.


On Tue, Dec 22, 2009 at 12:51 PM, Bruce Forster <bruce at tubes.net.au> wrote:

> I should add; i guess i made some assumption that you were co-locating your
> own servers with someone, if this isn't the case, please ignore everything
> i'v said ;)
>
>
> -bruce
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: Truman Boyes [mailto:truman at suspicious.org]
> Sent: Tuesday, 22 December 2009 10:47 PM
> To: Deric Kwok
> Cc: Bruce Forster; nanog at nanog.org
> Subject: Re: how it routes and network question
>
> Hi, your "hosting company" is likely NAT'ing or using load balancers on the
> front end. You are obviously not "reaching" those machines by ssh'ing into
> 192.168.x.x... Additionally, assuming that DHCP is handing out that address
> on the server that mask would likely not be all ones.
>
> Even Amazon EC2 instances use private addresses now on the backend ...
>
> Kind regards,
> Truman
>
>
> On 22/12/2009, at 11:31 PM, Deric Kwok wrote:
>
> > Hi Bruce
> >
> > Thank you so much to explain me in detail. I would like to know about
> > this it in case i can get another  hosting company
> >
> > Yes. I think the netmask should be 255.255.255.255
> > 1/ but why they are using this netmask setting? save ip address?
> > then does the router handle many routes in this setting?
> > 2/ What is this advantage for the hosting company?
> > 3/ If I need more ip in the same server, how it works?
> > 4/ Why you said the hosting company is cheap to use this configuration?
> >
> > Thank you again.
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >>
> >> <SNIP>
> >> 2/ lf  the network card in server has problem and need change another
> >> one, will my ip address change to another ip address also?
> >> </SNIP>
> >> Yeah well thats how dhcp works, via ma caddy, i guess you can always
> spoof
> >> your old mac address.
> >>
> >> <SNIP>
> >> 3/ why hosting company is using /32 and dhcp? what is advantage? ls it
> >> easy for administration?
> >> </SNIP>
> >> Im guessing because the users are to stupid to understand what a subnet
> >> mask/gateway is its just easier to get the mac address and assign it to
> a
> >> user then let the user assign a ip.
> >>
> >>
> >> Normally in a co-location setup its not like this, inless its very cheap
> >> hosting.
> >>
> >> My co-location has the following setup, and this is how MOST networks
> should
> >> be run.
> >>
> >> Core router using BGP to transit providers, and other local peers.
> >> Switched network useing ospf to handle the routes and also VLAN's for
> the
> >> customers subnets.
> >>
> >> So customer should get a vlan assigned to them (which they have no need
> to
> >> know what the number is, they are handed a access mode port.
> >> Customers also issued a /30 (at least) in most cases a customer will get
> a
> >> /29 or /28 depending on what they need.
> >> In this case of a /30 its a total of 3 address's
> >> 1, GATEWAY (put on the ISP/HOST switch
> >> 2, IP ADDRESS FOR SERVER TO USE
> >> 3, BROADCAST ADDRESS.
> >>
> >> Heres an eg of a /30:
> >>
> >> Address:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
> >> Netmask:   255.255.255.252 = 30 11111111.11111111.11111111.111111 00
> >> Wildcard:  0.0.0.3              00000000.00000000.00000000.000000 11
> >> =>
> >> Network:   192.168.1.0/30       11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 00
> >> HostMin:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01
> >> HostMax:   192.168.1.2          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 10
> >> Broadcast: 192.168.1.3          11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 11
> >> Hosts/Net: 2                     Class C, Private Internet
> >>
> >>
> >> Heres an eg of a /29:
> >>
> >> the % ipcalc 192.168.1.1/29
> >> Address:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
> >> Netmask:   255.255.255.248 = 29 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111 000
> >> Wildcard:  0.0.0.7              00000000.00000000.00000000.00000 111
> >> =>
> >> Network:   192.168.1.0/29       11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 000
> >> HostMin:   192.168.1.1          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 001
> >> HostMax:   192.168.1.6          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 110
> >> Broadcast: 192.168.1.7          11000000.10101000.00000001.00000 111
> >> Hosts/Net: 6                     Class C, Private Internet
> >>
> >> Hope this makes sence.
> >>
> >> Regards,
> >>
> >> Bruce
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >
>
>
>
>


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